Regenexx® Orthopedic Stem Cell Research

Our research and patients account for a large percentage of the world's total orthopedic stem cell literature

Explore the Research | Clinical Studies

Regenexx is the only orthopedic stem cell network with this volume of data and we are the only ones to regularly publish patient outcome data with complete transparency.

Regenexx Published Research Papers

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The published research on Regenexx procedures accounts for approx. 51% of the world’s orthopedic stem cell literature (cumulative n of patients published & treated with bone marrow stem cells as of 4/3/2016)

Regenexx® stem cell procedures have been studied extensively for more than a decade and our patients are part of the world’s largest human mesenchymal stem cell re-implantation database for orthopedic purposes. We are the only orthopedic stem cell providers with this volume of data to draw upon and to regularly summarize outcome data from our patient registry and make it available to the public.

Our Most Recently Published Stem Cell Safety Paper is the Largest in the World

Just Published in the Journal of International Orthopedics

In 2016, Regenexx published the world’s largest (2,372 patients) stem cell safety paper in any medical indication (not just orthopedics). This is the most in-depth analysis of safety available. In addition, it’s the longest follow-up period for a large group of patients where all complaints are reported. Finally, the data was collected at multiple treatment sites, and all complications that were considered significant were reviewed by a panel of five physicians and scientists who were not in any way affiliated with Regenexx (independent adjudication of SAEs).

More Regenexx Published Research

A Dose Response Analysis of a Specific Bone Marrow Concentrate Treatment Protocol for Knee Osteoarthritis.

National Library of Medicine

Background: Prior studies describing the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis with injections of bone marrow concentrate have provided encouraging results. The relationship between the cellular dose contained within the bone marrow concentrate and efficacy of the treatment, however, is unclear. In the present study we describe clinical outcomes for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in relation to higher and lower cell concentrations contained within a bone marrow concentrate treatment protocol.

Methods: Data from an ongoing patient registry was culled to identify 373 patients that received bone marrow concentrate injections for the treatment of 424 osteoarthritic knee joints. The clinical scales for these patients were assessed at baseline and then tracked post-procedure at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, and annually thereafter. Tracked outcomes included the numeric pain scale; a lower extremity functional questionnaire; an International Knee Documentation Committee scale; and a subjective improvement rating scale. Using pain and functional outcome measures, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to define an optimal clinical outcome threshold at which bone marrow nucleated cell count could be divided into either a lower or higher cell count group within a treatment protocol.

Results: The lower and higher cell count groups were defined using a threshold of 4 × 10 8 cells. There were 224 and 185 knee joints treated in the lower (≤4 × 10 8 ) and higher (>4 × 10 8 ) cell count groups respectively. Most joints were diagnosed with early stage knee osteoarthritis. Both the lower and higher cell count groups demonstrated significant positive results with the treatment for all of the pain and functional metrics. The higher cell count group reported lower post treatment numeric pain scale values, in comparison with the lower cell count group (1.6 vs. 3.2; P < 0.001). No significant differences were detected for the other metrics, however.

Conclusions: Improved function and reduced pain was observed in patients treated with a bone marrow concentrate protocol regardless of cellular dose; however, patients receiving a higher concentration of cells reported a better pain outcome in comparison with the lower dose group. These preliminary findings suggest that cell dose may be an important factor governing clinical outcomes in autologous bone marrow concentrate treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Further studies using a larger patient population may help elucidate these findings.

A Prospective Multi-site Registry Study of a Specific Protocol of Autologous Bone Marrow Concentrate for the Treatment of Shoulder Rotator Cuff Tears and Osteoarthritis.

Journal of Pain Research 2015:8 269–276

Introduction: Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint in the general population. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injections offer promising potential as a minimally invasive approach for treatment of shoulder pain in degenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of the BMC injections for treatment of shoulder pain and disability due to osteoarthritis (OA) and rotator cuff tears in a treatment registry population.

Methods: A total of 115 shoulders in 102 patients were treated with autologous BMC injections for symptomatic OA at the glenohumeral joint and/or rotator cuff tears. Data were collected for factors potentially influencing outcome, including age, sex, body mass index, and the type of condition treated (ie, OA or rotator cuff tear). Clinical outcomes were assessed serially over time using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand score (DASH), the numeric pain scale (NPS), and a subjective improvement rating scale. Baseline scores were compared to the most recent outcome scores at the time of the analysis and adjusted for demographic differences. We reported comparisons of pre- and post-treatment scores, the differences between osteoarthritis and rotator cuff groups, and the predictive effects on the clinical outcomes.

Results: At the most current follow-up assessment after treatment, the average DASH score decreased (improved) from 36.1 to 17.1 (P,0.001) and the average numeric pain scale value decreased (improved) from 4.3 to 2.4 (P,0.001). These changes were associated with an average subjective improvement of 48.8%. No differences were observed between outcomes among the shoulders treated for OA versus rotator cuff tears, nor did age, sex, or body mass index influence pain or functional outcomes. There were no significant treatment-related adverse events reported.

Discussion: We observed preliminarily encouraging results following BMC injections for shoulder OA and rotator cuff tears. These results serve as basis for the design of an adequately powered randomized controlled trial.

Efficacy of Autologous Bone Marrow Concentrate for Knee Osteoarthritis with and without Adipose Graft.

BioMed Research International; Volume 2014, Article ID 370621,. Centeno CJ.

Introduction. We investigated the use of autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) with and without an adipose graft, for treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Treatment registry data for patients who underwent BMC procedures with and without an adipose graft were analyzed. Pre- and posttreatment outcomes of interest included the lower extremity functional scale (LEFS), the numerical pain scale (NPS), and a subjective percentage improvement rating. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine the effects of treatment type adjusting for potential confounding factors. The frequency and type of adverse events (AE) were also examined. Results. 840 procedures were performed, 616 without and 224 with adipose graft. The mean LEFS score increased by 7.9 and 9.8 in the two groups (out of 80), respectively, and the mean NPS score decreased from 4 to 2.6 and from 4.3 to 3 in the two groups, respectively. AE rates were 6% and 8.9% in the two groups, respectively. Although pre- and posttreatment improvements were statistically significant, the differences between the groups were not. Conclusion. BMC injections for knee OA showed encouraging outcomes and a low rate of AEs. Addition of an adipose graft to the BMC did not provide a detectible benefit over BMC alone.

Amide-Type Local Anesthetics and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Clinical Implications for Stem Cell Therapy.

Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014 Jan 16.

In the realm of regenerative medicine, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are gaining attention as a cell source for the repair and regeneration of tissues spanning an array of medical disciplines. In orthopedics, hMSCs are often delivered in a site-specific manner at the area of interest and may require the concurrent application of local anesthetics (LAs). To address the implications of using hMSCs in combination with anesthetics for intra-articular applications, we investigated the effect that clinically relevant doses of amide-type LAs have on the viability of bone marrow-derived hMSCs and began to characterize the mechanism of LA-induced hMSC death. In our study, culture-expanded hMSCs from three donors were exposed to the amide-type LAs ropivacaine, lidocaine, bupivacaine, and mepivacaine. To replicate the physiological dilution of LAs once injected into the synovial capsule, each anesthetic was reduced to 12.5%, 25%, and 50% of the stock solution and incubated with each hMSC line for 40 minutes, 120 minutes, 360 minutes, and 24 hours. At each time point, cell viability assays were performed. We found that extended treatment with LAs for 24 hours had a significant impact on both hMSC viability and adhesion. In addition, hMSC treatment with three of the four anesthetics resulted in cell death via apoptosis following brief exposures. Ultimately, we concluded that amide-type LAs induce hMSC apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner that may threaten clinical outcomes, following a similar trend that has been established between these particular anesthetics and articular chondrocytes both in vitro and in vivo.

Percutaneous injection of autologous, culture-expanded mesenchymal stem cells into carpometacarpal hand joints: a case series with an untreated comparison group.

Centeno CJ, D Freeman M.

Wien Med Wochenschr. 2013 Aug 15.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show promising clinical potential as multipotent therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine, including a number of orthopedic applications.  Objective: To study the possible value of MSC’s injected intra-articular in patients with carpometecarpal (CMC) joint and hand osteoarthritis (OA).

METHODS: This is a prospective, case series with an untreated control that was obtained through a convenience sample. Patients underwent a bone marrow aspiration with isolation and culture expansion of MSC’s using a serum free, autologous platelet lysate. Autologous MSC’s were injected intra-articular utilizing imaging guidance. Percentage improvement, functional and visual analog scale data was collected via survey at pre-procedure, 3 months, 6 months, and annually.

RESULTS: Six OA patients and four controls were recruited. The mean reported pain relief was significantly higher +60% in the thumb OA group (n=6, p=.032) than in the control -18.75% (n=4). The average time reporting was 11.83 +/- 5.70 months and 9.55 +/- 6.49 months for both groups, respectively. On average, a greater than 30% reduction were observed in all VAS scale metrics (n=5), average reporting time was 13 +/-5.52 months. The majority of patients (66.7%, n=6) reported an increase in both strength and range of motion, average reporting time was 11.83 +/- 5.7 months. No complications were reported.

CONCLUSIONS:Percutaneous implantation of cultured MSCs into the carpometecarpal joint was associated with patient reported improvement in pain and function that was not seen in an untreated control. In addition, all patients within this small case series reported no complications.

Safety and Complications Reporting Update on the Re-implantation of Culture-Expanded Mesenchymal Stem Cells using Autologous Platelet Lysate Technique.

Safety and Complications Reporting Update on the Re-implantation of Culture-Expanded Mesenchymal Stem Cells using Autologous Platelet Lysate Technique.

Centeno CJ, Schultz JR, Cheever M, Freeman M, Faulkner S, Robinson B, Hanson R.–Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2011 Oct 17. 

Source

The Centeno-Schultz Clinic, Broomfield, Colorado, USA.

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise as therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. Numerous animal studies have documented the multipotency of MSCs, showing their capabilities for differentiating into orthopedic tissues such as muscle, bone, cartilage, and tendon. However, the safety of culture expanded MSC’s for human use has only just begun to be reported. Methods: Between 2006 and 2010, two groups of patients were treated for various orthopedic conditions with culture-expanded, autologous, bone marrow-derived MSCs (group 1: n=50; group 2: n=290-one patient in both groups). Cells were cultured in monolayer culture flasks using an autologous platelet lysate technique and re-injected into peripheral joints or into intervertebral discs with use of c-arm fluoroscopy. While both groups had prospective surveillance for complications, Group 1 additionally underwent 3.0T MRI tracking of the re-implant sites. Results: The mean age of patients treated was 53 +/- 13.85 years; 214 were males and 125 females with mean follow-up time from any procedure being 435 days +/- 261 days. Number of contacts initiated based on time from first procedure was 482 at 3 months, 433 at 6 months, 316 contacts at 12 months, 110 contacts at 24 months, and 22 contacts at 36 months. For Group 1, 50 patients underwent 210 MRI surveillance procedures at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years which failed to demonstrate any tumor formation at the re-implant sites. Formal disease surveillance for adverse events based on HHS criteria documented significantly less morbidity than is commonly reported for more invasive surgical procedures, all of which were either self-limited or were remedied with therapeutic measures. Two patients were diagnosed with cancer out of 339 patients treated since study inception; however, this was almost certainly unrelated to the MSC therapy and the neoplasm rate in similar to that seen in the U.S. Caucasian population. Knee outcome data was collected on a subset of patients. Here, >75% improvement was reported in 41.4% while decreasing the improvement threshold to >50% improvement, 63.2% reported an improvement. At an average reporting time of 11.3 months from first procedure average reported relief in the knee sample equaled 53.1% (n=133 reporting). Conclusions: Using both intensive high field MRI tracking and complications surveillance in 339 patients, no neoplastic complications were detected at any stem cell re-implantation site. These findings are consistent with our prior publication and other published reports that also show no evidence of malignant transformation in vivo, following implantation of MSCs for orthopedic use.

Safety and complications reporting on the re-implantation of culture-expanded mesenchymal stem cells using autologous platelet lysate technique.

Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2010 Mar;5(1):81-93.

Centeno CJ, Schultz JR, Cheever M, Robinson B, Freeman M, Marasco W.

Abstract

ABSTRUCT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise as therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. Numerous animal studies have documented the multipotency of MSCs, showing their capabilities for differentiating into orthopedic tissues such as muscle, bone, cartilage, and tendon. However, the complication rate for autologous MSC therapy is only now beginning to be reported.

METHODS:

Between 2005 and 2009, two groups of patients were treated for various orthopedic conditions with culture-expanded, autologous, bone marrow-derived MSCs (group 1: n=45; group 2: n=182). Cells were cultured in monolayer culture flasks using an autologous platelet lysate technique and re-injected into peripheral joints (n=213) or into intervertebral discs (n=13) with use of c-arm fluoroscopy. While both groups had prospective surveillance for complications, Group 1 additionally underwent 3.0T MRI tracking of the re-implant sites.

RESULTS: Mean follow-up from the time of the re-implant procedure was 10.6 +/- 7.3 months. Serial MRI’s at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years failed to demonstrate any tumor formation at the re-implant sites. Formal disease surveillance for adverse events based on HHS criteria documented 7 cases of probable procedure-related complications (thought to be associated with the re-implant procedure itself) and three cases of possible stem cell complications, all of which were either self-limited or were remedied with simple therapeutic measures. One patient was diagnosed with cancer; however, this was almost certainly unrelated to the MSC therapy.

CONCLUSIONS: Using both high field MRI tracking and general surveillance in 227 patients, no neoplastic complications were detected at any stem cell re-implantation site. These findings are consistent with other reports that also show no evidence of malignant transformation in vivo, following implantation of MSCs that were expanded in vitro for limited periods. PMID: 19951252  

Increased knee cartilage volume in degenerative joint disease using percutaneously implanted, autologous mesenchymal stem cells.

Increased knee cartilage volume in degenerative joint disease using percutaneously implanted, autologous mesenchymal stem cells.

Centeno CJ, Busse D, Kisiday J, Keohan C, Freeman M, Karli D.

Regenerative Sciences Inc (RSI), Centeno-Schultz Clinic, Westminster, CO 80020, USA.–Pain Physician. 2008 May-Jun;11(3):343-53.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The ability to repair tissue via percutaneous means may allow interventional pain physicians to manage a wide variety of diseases including peripheral joint injuries and osteoarthritis. This review will highlight the developments in cellular medicine that may soon permit interventional pain management physicians to treat a much wider variety of clinical conditions and highlight an interventional case study using these technologies OBJECTIVE: To determine if isolated and expanded human autologous mesenchymal stem cells could effectively regenerate cartilage and meniscal tissue when percutaneously injected into knees. DESIGN: Case Study SETTING: Private Interventional Pain Management practice. METHODS: An IRB approved study with a consenting volunteer in which mesenchymal stem cells were isolated and cultured ex-vivo from bone marrow aspiration of the iliac crest. The mesenchymal stem cells were then percutaneously injected into the subject’s knee with MRI proven degenerative joint disease. Pre- and post-treatment subjective visual analog pain scores, physical therapy assessments, and MRIs measured clinical and radiographic changes. RESULTS: At 24 weeks post-injection, the patient had statistically significant cartilage and meniscus growth on MRI, as well as increased range of motion and decreased modified VAS pain scores. CONCLUSION: The described process of autologous mesenchymal stem cell culture and percutaneous injection into a knee with symptomatic and radiographic degenerative joint disease resulted in significant cartilage growth, decreased pain and increased joint mobility in this patient. This has significant future implications for minimally invasive treatment of osteoarthritis and meniscal injury.

PMID: 18523506 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]Free Article

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tears treated with Percutaneous Injection of Autologous Bone Marrow Nucleated Cells: A Case Series.

Journal of Pain Research 2015: 8: 437-447

Introduction: This was a prospective case series designed to investigate treatment for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears using an injection of autologous bone marrow concentrate.

Methods: Consecutive adult patients presenting to a private outpatient interventional musculoskeletal and pain practice with knee pain, ACL laxity on exam, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of a grade 1, 2, or 3 ACL tears with less than 1 cm retraction were eligible for this study. Eligible patients were treated with an intraligamentous injection of autologous bone marrow concentrate, using fluoroscopic guidance. Pre- and postprocedural sagittal MRI images of the ACLs were analyzed using ImageJ software to objectively quantify changes between pre- and posttreatment scans. Five different types of measurement of ACL pixel intensity were examined as a proxy for ligament integrity. In addition pain visual analog scale (VAS) and Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) values were recorded at baseline and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and annually postinjection. Objective outcomes measured were pre- to post-MRI measurement changes, as analyzed by the ImageJ software. Subjective outcomes measured were changes in the VAS and LEFS, and a self-rated percentage improvement.

Results: Seven of ten patients showed improvement in at least four of five objective measures of ACL integrity in their postprocedure MRIs. In the entire study group, the mean gray value, median, raw integrated density, and modal gray value all decreased toward low-signal ACLs (P=0.01, P=0.02, P=0.002, and P=0.08), indications of improved ligament integrity. Seven of ten patients responded to the self-rated metrics follow up. The mean VAS change was a decrease of 1.7 (P=0.25), the mean LEFS change was an increase of 23.3 (P=0.03), and mean reported improvement was 86.7%.

Conclusion: Based on this small case series, autologous bone marrow concentrate shows promise in the treatment of grade 1, 2, and possibly grade 3 ACL tears without retraction. Further investigation using a controlled study design is warranted.

Efficacy and Safety of Bone Marrow Concentrate for Osteoarthritis of the Hip; Treatment Registry Results for 196 Patients.

Stem Cell Research and Therapy; Volume 4: Issue 10; 2014, Article ID 370621,. Centeno CJ.

Introduction: We investigated the efficacy and safety of autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) for the treatment of symptomatic hip osteoarthritis.

Methods: Treatment registry data for 216 hips treated among 196 patients who underwent a BMC procedure for hip osteoarthritis (OA) were analyzed. Data regarding adverse events (AEs), subjective percentage improvement, Oxford Hip Scores (OHS), and numeric pain scale (NPS) scores were assessed and compared to baseline at 1, 3, 6 months, and annually after treatment.

Results: The mean reported subjective percentage improvement across all 216 treated hips was 30.2%. The mean OHS change was 6.4 points improved (p<0.001). The NPS scores from baseline to post treatment decreased from 4.5 to 3.3 (p<0.001). Twelve AEs were reported, none of which were serious or persisting. Patients ≤ 55 years old were substantially more likely to report improvement on the OHS [OR: 11.1 (1.6-77.8)] and also more likely to report greater than 50% improvement on the subjective percentage improvement scale [OR: 2.8 (1.2-6.7)].

Conclusion: The present study of BMC injections for hip OA demonstrated encouraging results for improved outcomes with no significant complications. We found that patients younger than 55 years old were more likely to report improvement on the OHS and subjective percentage improvement scales. Further study with randomized trials is warranted to confirm the reported results.

Clinical challenges and opportunities of mesenchymal stem cells in musculoskeletal medicine.

PM R. 2014 Jan;6(1):70-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2013.08.612. Centeno CJ.

Abstract: The use of stem cells in orthopedics has been researched for many years, with robust animal data that show efficacy in cartilage healing, tendon repair, and intervertebral disk treatment. Early clinical data are also just starting to be published, and these results are encouraging. Safety data in large case series, some that lasted for many years, have also been published. The field of tissue engineering with stem cells in musculoskeletal impairments has the potential to reduce morbidity and improve clinical outcomes. The regulatory environment for this area of medicine is still developing.

Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID: 24439149

Safety of intra-articular cell-therapy with culture-expanded stem cells in humans: a systematic literature review.

NOTE: This article was written by an independent third party after requesting the source data for our n=339 safety paper. They reviewed that source data and concluded that it was the highest quality data reporting on safety of any paper they reviewed in the meta-analysis. As a result, it is the primary basis for many of their conclusions below.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Oct;21(10):1465-73. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2013.06.025. Epub 2013 Jul 4.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: An important goal of stem cell research in orthopaedics is to develop clinically relevant techniques that could be applied to heal cartilage or joint pathology. Stem cell treatment in orthopaedics for joint pathology is promising since these cells have the ability to modulate different processes in the various tissues of the joint simultaneously. The non life-threatening nature of musculoskeletal system disorders makes safety ofstem cell therapy a necessary prerequisite.

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature and provide an overview of reported adverse events (AEs) of intra-articular treatment with culture-expanded stem cells in humans.

DESIGN: A systematic literature search was performed in Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science and CINAHL in February 2013. AEs were reported into three categories: local/systemic, serious adverse event or AE (SAE/AE), related/unrelated.

RESULTS: 3039 Potentially eligible articles were identified of which eventually eight fulfilled our inclusion criteria. In total, 844 procedures with a mean follow-up of 21 months were analysed. Autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were used for cartilage repair and osteoarthritis treatment in all included studies. Four SAEs were reported by the authors. One infection following bone marrow aspiration (BMA) was reported as probably related and resolved with antibiotics. One pulmonary embolism occurred 2 weeks after BMA and was reported as possibly related. Two tumours, both not at the site of injection, were reported as unrelated. Twenty-two other cases of possible procedure-related and seven of possible stem cell-product related adverse events (AEs) were documented. The main AEs related to the procedure were increased pain/swelling and dehydration after BMA. Increased pain and swelling was the only AE reported as related to the stem cell-product.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on current literature review we conclude that application of cultured stem cells in joints appears to be safe. We believe that with continuous caution for potential side effects, it is reasonable to continue with the development of articular stem cell therapies.

A Case Series of Percutaneous Treatment of Non-Union Fractures with Autologous, Culture Expanded, Bone Marrow Derived, Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelet Lysate

Centeno CJ, Schultz JR, Cheever M, Freeman M, Robinson B, Faulkner S

Journal of Bioengineering and Biomedical Science. 2011

Abstract

Background: Current treatment options for stable non-union fractures represent major clinical challenges, and are a major health issue. Fracture treatment can take many forms, usually requiring bone grafting and/or revisions of the fracture with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Conservative care options such as bone morphogenic proteins and bone stimulators are also available. The purpose of this study was to determine if culture expanded, autologous MSC’s injected into non-union fractures under c-Arm fluoroscopy could represent an alternative treatment modality in recalcitrant fracture non-unions.

This paper reports on the findings of 6 patients with fracture non-union treated with autologous MSC’s.  Patients and methods:  We evaluated 6 consecutive patients with chronic fracture non-unions. Patients consisted of 4 women and 2 men with treatment intervention at an average of 8.75 months post-fracture (range 4- 18 months, one patient fracture not included in calculation was >100 mo.).

All treated patients received autologous, culture expanded, mesenchymal stem cells injected percutaneously via fluoroscopic guidance into the site of the fracture non-union. Fracture union was evaluated with the use of follow up high-resolution x-ray and/or CT imaging. Phenotype of the culture-expanded MSCs was evaluated and quantified by flow cytometry of surface antigens.Conclusion: The results of this study support the hypothesis that autologous MSC’s delivered via percutaneous re-implantation may be an alternative modality for the non-operative treatment of recalcitrant non-union fractures.

Osteoblastic differentiation of human and equine adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells when BMP-2 or BMP-7 homodimer genetic modification is compared to BMP-2/7 heterodimer genetic modification in the presence and absence of dexamethasone.

Osteoblastic differentiation of human and equine adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells when BMP-2 or BMP-7 homodimer genetic modification is compared to BMP-2/7 heterodimer genetic modification in the presence and absence of dexamethasone.

Carpenter RS, Goodrich LR, Frisbie DD, Kisiday JD, Carbone B, McIlwraith CW, Centeno CJ, Hidaka C.

Orthopaedic Research Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523.

–J Orthop Res. 2010 Mar 22

Abstract

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs) have been targeted for use in enhancement of bone healing; and their osteogenic potential may be further augmented by genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP’s). The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of genetic modification of human and equine BMDMSCs with BMP-2 or -7 or BMP-2 and -7 on their osteoblastogenic differentiation in the presence or absence of dexamethasone. The BMDMSCs were harvested from the iliac crest of three human donors and tuber coxae of three equine donors. Monolayer cells were genetically modified using adenovirus vectors encoding BMP-2, -7 or both and cultured in the presence or absence of dexamethasone. Expression of BMPs was confirmed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To evaluate osteoblastic differentiation, cellular morphology was assessed every other day and expression and secretion of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as expression levels of osteonectin (OSTN), osteocalcin (OCN), and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) were measured for up to 14 days. Human and equine BMDMSCs showed a capacity for osteogenic differentiation regardless of genetic modification or dexamethasone supplementation. Dexamethasone supplementation was more important for osteoblastogenic differentiation of equine BMDMSCs than human BMDMSCs. Genetic modification of BMDMSCs increased ALP secretion with AdBMP-2 homodimer having the greatest effect in both human and equine cells compared to AdBMP 7 or AdBMP 2/7. BMP protein elution rates reached their maximal concentration between day 4 and 8 and remained relatively stable thereafter, suggesting that genetically modified BMDMSCs could be useful for cell-based delivery of BMPs to a site of bone formation. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

Regeneration of meniscus cartilage in a knee treated with percutaneously implanted autologous mesenchymal stem cells.

Regeneration of meniscus cartilage in a knee treated with percutaneously implanted autologous mesenchymal stem cells.

Centeno CJ, Busse D, Kisiday J, Keohan C, Freeman M, Karli D.

Regenerative Sciences Inc, Centeno-Schultz Clinic, Westminster, CO 80020, USA.

–Med Hypotheses. 2008 Dec;71(6):900-8. Epub 2008 Sep 10.

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells are pluripotent cells found in multiple human tissues including bone marrow, synovial tissues, and adipose tissues. They have been shown to differentiate into bone, cartilage, muscle, and adipose tissue and represent a possible promising new therapy in regenerative medicine. Because of their multi-potent capabilities, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineages have been used successfully in animal models to regenerate articular cartilage and in human models to regenerate bone. The regeneration of articular cartilage via percutaneous introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC’s) is a topic of significant scientific and therapeutic interest. Current treatment for cartilage damage in osteoarthritis focuses on surgical interventions such as arthroscopic debridement, microfracture, and cartilage grafting/transplant. These procedures have proven to be less effective than hoped, are invasive, and often entail a prolonged recovery time. We hypothesize that autologous mesenchymal stem cells can be harvested from the iliac crest, expanded using the patient’s own growth factors from platelet lysate, then successfully implanted to increase cartilage volume in an adult human knee. We present a review highlighting the developments in cellular and regenerative medicine in the arena mesenchymal stem cell therapy, as well as a case of successful harvest, expansion, and transplant of autologous mesenchymal stem cells into an adult human knee that resulted in an increase in meniscal cartilage volume.

Partial regeneration of the human hip via autologous bone marrow nucleated cell transfer: A case study.

Partial regeneration of the human hip via autologous bone marrow nucleated cell transfer: A case study.

Centeno CJ, Kisiday J, Freeman M, Schultz JR.

The Centeno-Schultz Clinic, 11080 Circle Point Road, Building 2, Suite 140, Westminster, CO 80020, USA. centenooffice@cenenoclinic.com

–Pain Physician. 2006 Jul;9(3):253-6.

Abstract

HISTORY: This is a case report of a 64-year-old white male with a 20 year history of unilateral hip pain that had become debilitating over the last several years. On intake, Harris hip score was rated as: Pain subscale = 10, Function subscale = 32, Deformity subscale = 4, Motions subscale = 4.775 with a total score of 50.8 out of 100. MRI of the affected hip showed severe degeneration with spurring, decrease in joint space, and several large subchondral cysts. The patient had been evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon and told he was a candidate for bipolar hip replacement. METHOD: Two autologous nucleated cell collections were performed from bone marrow with subsequent isolation and transfers into the intra-articular hip using a hyaluronic acid and thrombin activated platelet rich plasma scaffold. Marrow samples were processed by centrifugation and lysis techniques to isolate nucleated cells. CONCLUSION: This report describes partial by articular surface regeneration 8 weeks after intraarticular bone marrow transfer. Post-op 3.0T FGRE MRI showed neocortex formation when compared to immediate pre-op MRI and objective improvements were noted that coincided with subjective reports of improvement.

PMID: 16886034 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]Free Article

The Best Possible Patient Outcomes

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A Complete Stem Cell Protocol – Not Just a Single Procedure

The Regenexx Patented Stem Cell Protocol has been researched and continually improved for more than a decade. The protocol used in the United States typically involves a series of injections that take place over the course of approximately one week. The Stem Cell extraction and reinjection happens during the same day, while the other two injection steps happen before and after the same day stem cell procedure and are designed to enhance the results of the stem cell procedure.

100% Focused on Orthopedics

We don’t treat everything and we’re proud of that fact. We are orthopedic specialists. Each doctor in the Regenexx Network is a musculoskeletal expert trained in our procedures and have proven skills in advanced injections for the body areas that they are certified to treat.

Up to 20 Times More Stem Cells Available for Your Treatment Using Patented Cell Processing Procedure

At Regenexx®, we’re continually improving our processes to maximize the available stem cells for your treatment. Our patented multi-tier lab technique typically yields 10 to 20 times more stem cells than is possible using the simple automated equipment utilized by most stem cell clinics.

Image-Guided Injections and Harvesting

Even experienced orthopedic specialists cannot hit an exact spot without taking a look inside. The imaging technology that we use during your procedure allows us to not only see the anatomy of the area being injected, but we have live visualization of the needle and the distribution of the injected cells. Precise needle placement for stem cell harvesting and reinjection is a key element in producing the best possible outcomes.

Backed by the Most Research

Regenexx® is the original orthopedic stem cell treatment in the United States and we’re responsible for a very large portion of the published orthopedic stem cell literature available today.
Published Research Articles

Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells

Research has shown that stem cells derived from bone marrow (rather than fat) are most effective for treating orthopedic injuries and conditions. We utilize advanced imaging guidance during the stem cell harvesting procedure to ensure the cells are being obtained from the exact area in the hip that is known to be rich in mesenchymal stem cells.

Published Patient Outcome Data & Transparency

At Regenexx® we publish our patient outcome data on a regular basis and make it available to the public on our website and in peer-reviewed research papers. Regenexx patients are tracked in a registry for functional improvements, pain scales, outcomes and safety data.
Patient Outcome Data

Current Clinical Studies

Regenexx regularly conducts studies relating to regenerative stem cell and blood platelet treatments. If you meet all of the inclusion / exclusion criteria for a given study and are able to travel to the area where the study is being conducted (oftentimes, several follow-up visits will be required), you may be a candidate for the study.

Regenexx ACL Stem Cell Procedure Study

ACL Study Criteria Patient Requirements

  • The patient must be willing to come to the Broomfield clinic for first an initial evaluation to make a final determination of study eligibility (includes diagnostic ultrasound)
  • There is no guarantee they will be eligible
  • The cost of this evaluation will be billed to the patient and/or their insurance
  • If eligible, the patient must be willing to return for treatment at the Broomfield clinic and for all post-injection treatments (6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months)
  • Costs of any travel will be the responsibility of the patient
  • The patient will be randomized to receive either Regenexx-SD treatment or be instructed in a home exercise therapy program
  • Patients in the exercise therapy group will have the opportunity to receive a Regenexx SD treatment after the three month visit if they do not respond to the exercise therapy
  • The Regenexx SD treatment will be provided at no cost to the patient
  • The patient must have a knee MRI current within the last year at their own cost for study screening purposes.
  • The subject must meet all inclusion criteria and not meet any exclusion criteria (complete list below). Key criteria include:
    • Age 18-65
    • can comply with all post-operative evaluations and visits
    • No previous surgery to the affected ACL
    • No MCL, PCL or LCL tears of same knee
    • No painful meniscus or cartilage injury at same time as the ACL tear
    • No current or past malignancy (cancer)

Inclusion Criteria

Candidates must meet ALL of the following:

  1. Voluntary signature of the IRB approved Informed Consent,
  2. Skeletally mature Male or Female ages 18 to 65
  3. Pain, swelling, or functional disability in the affected knee with activity, having failed conservative treatment (e.g. NSAIDs, physician initiated physical therapy) for at least 3 months or unable to return to normal day to day activities by 6 weeks
  4. Physical examination consistent with lax ACL ligament (Anterior Drawer Test)
  5. Abnormal Telos Arthrometer measurement
  6. Positive diagnostic MR imaging of the affected knee with at least 1/3 of the ACL ligament at any area along its length having high signal on MRI PDFS/Fat Sat images.
  7. Full range of motion of the affected knee (other than restriction clearly due to effusion)
  8. Normal range of motion of the non-treated knee
  9. Is independent, ambulatory, and can comply with all post-operative evaluations and visits

Exclusion Criteria

Candidates will be excluded if they meet ANY of the following:

  1. A massive ACL tear or one that includes more than 2/3’rds of the ligament that’s retracted.
  2. Previous surgery to the affected ACL (i.e. previous ACL replacement with an autograft or allograft)
  3. Prior ACL prolotherapy, PRP, corticosteroid injection or other injection therapy within the past three months,
  4. Concomitant meniscus tear or cartilage injury that occurred at the same time as the as the ACL tear and which is considered a pain generator by the treating physician at the time intake into the study (i.e. a meniscus tear or cartilage lesion associated with an active BML).
  5. Concomitant PCL, MCL, or LCL tears
  6. Inflammatory or auto-immune based joint diseases or other lower extremity pathology (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, polymyalgia, polymyositis, gout pseudogout)
  7. Quinolone or Statin induced myopathy/ tendinopathy
  8. Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or greater knee osteoarthritis
  9. Significant knee extension lag compared to the opposite knee
  10. Symptomatic lumbar spine pathology (e.g. radicular pain)
  11. Severe neurogenic inflammation of the cutaneous nerves about the knee or thigh
  12. Contraindications for MRI
  13. Tested positive or has been treated for a malignancy in the past or is suspected of having a malignancy or is currently undergoing radiation or chemotherapy treatment for a malignancy anywhere in the body, whether adjacent to or distant from the proposed injection site
  14. Condition represents a worker’s compensation case
  15. Currently involved in a health-related litigation procedure
  16. Is pregnant
  17. Bleeding disorders
  18. Currently taking anticoagulant or immunosuppressive medication
  19. Allergy or intolerance to study medication
  20. Use of chronic opioid,
  21. Documented history of drug abuse within six months of treatment
  22. Any other condition, that in the opinion of the investigator, that would preclude the patient from enrollment
Regenexx Rotator Cuff Stem Cell Procedure Study

Shoulder Rotator Cuff Study Patient Requirements

  • The patient must be willing to come to the Broomfield clinic for first an initial evaluation to make a final determination of study eligibility (includes diagnostic ultrasound)
  • There is no guarantee they will be eligible
  • The cost of this evaluation will be billed to the patient and/or their insurance
  • If eligible, the patient must be willing to return for treatment at the Broomfield clinic and for all post-injection treatments (6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months)
  • Costs of any travel will be the responsibility of the patient
  • The patient will be randomized to receive either Regenexx-SD treatment or be instructed in a home exercise therapy program
  • Patients in the exercise therapy group will have the opportunity to receive a Regenexx SD treatment after the three month visit if they do not respond to the exercise therapy
  • The Regenexx SD treatment will be provided at no cost to the patient
  • The patient must have a shoulder MRI current within the last year at their own cost for study screening purposes.
  • The subject must meet all inclusion criteria and not meet any exclusion criteria (complete list below). Key criteria include:
  • Age 18-65
  • can comply with all post-operative evaluations and visits
  • No previous surgery to the affected shoulder
  • No current or past malignancy (cancer)

Inclusion Criteria

Candidates must meet ALL of the following:

  • Voluntary signature of the IRB approved Informed Consent,
  • Skeletally mature Male or Female ages 18 to 65
  • Unremitting pain in the affected shoulder having failed conservative treatment (e.g. NSAIDs, physician initiated physical therapy or a corticosteroid injection) for at least 3 months
  • Significant functional disability related to pain, lack of strength, or other shoulder symptoms
  • Physical examination consistent with Rotator Cuff tear
  • Positive diagnostic imaging, which may include arthrogram, ultrasound and/or MR, on the affected shoulder indicating a non-retracted supraspinatus tendon tear comprising at least one half the tendon thickness in the anterior-posterior and/or superior-inferior planes
  • Reasonable movement of the non-treated arm, defined as a shoulder elevation of equal or more than 90°, and able to perform (post-injection) exercises
  • Is independent, ambulatory, and can comply with all post-operative evaluations and visits

Exclusion Criteria

Candidates will be excluded if they meet ANY of the following:

  • A massive rotator cuff tear as demonstrated by Grade 3 or less muscle strength on testing internal and external rotation of the affected shoulder
  • Previous surgery to the affected shoulder
  • Prior rotator cuff prolotherapy, PRP or other RC injection-based therapies within the past three months,
  • Concomitant tears of multiple rotator cuff or biceps tendons
  • Grade 2 or greater SLAP tear
  • Type 3 acromion
  • Significant bone spur in subacromial space
  • Inflammatory or auto-immune based joint diseases or other upper extremity pathology (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, polymyalgia, polymyositis, gout pseudogout)
  • Quinolone or Statin induced myopathy/ tendinopathy
  • Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or greater glenohumeral osteoarthritis
  • Adhesive capsulitis (mild or severe)
  • Symptomatic cervical spine pathology (e.g. radicular cervical pain)
  • Severe neurogenic inflammation of the cutaneous nerves about the shoulder
  • Shoulder instability requiring surgical stabilization
  • Contraindications for MRI
  • Tested positive or has been treated for a malignancy in the past or is suspected of having a malignancy or is currently undergoing radiation or chemotherapy treatment for a malignancy anywhere in the body, whether adjacent to or distant from the proposed injection site
  • Condition represents a worker’s compensation case
  • Currently involved in a health-related litigation procedure
  • Is pregnant
  • Bleeding disorders
  • Currently taking anticoagulant or immunosuppressive medication
  • Allergy or intolerance to study medication
  • Use of chronic opioid,
  • Documented history of drug abuse within six months of treatment
  • Any other condition, that in the opinion of the investigator, that would preclude the patient from enrollment

If you meet all of the criteria for a study and are able to travel to the research study location for all of the required follow-up of visits, please contact us at 303.495.4014.

More Questions? Search the Knowledge Base.

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