Total Joint Reconstruction: There are several variations of this procedure. In one common approach, the skin of the hand is opened, and the trapezium bone at the base of the thumb is removed. Pieces of tendon are taken from other parts of the body. One piece is rolled up to make a cushion where the bone was removed. Another piece is used to “graft” or hold together loose bones. Unfortunately there is a significant failure rate with this and the recovery period is lengthy.
Thumb Fusion: The arthritic bones are exposed by cutting into the skin. They are then fused together with either pins or bone grafts from the patient or a cadaver.

Thumb Replacement Surgery: The bone on either side of the joint are cut and the metal prosthesis is inserted.  Recovery can be very lengthy while the bones adhere to the prosthesis.