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A 12-Year Compilation of Before and After Orthopedic Stem Cell MRIs

POSTED ON IN Uncategorized BY Chris Centeno

Patients want to see results. In some instances, when stem cells are used to treat orthopedic problems, if the procedures are done correctly, you can show patients amazing changes on an MRI taken after the procedure. In other circumstances, little changes are seen. Given that we were the first clinic on earth to do many of these procedures, we have had 12+ years to collect before and after MRIs. The video above goes over a sampler of MRIs in various regions of the body and orthopedic problems.

What’s Real vs. Hype?

Right now, there are about a thousand clinics that have begun offering stem cell therapies to treat orthopedic conditions in the last  24 months. While some of them are trying hard to keep it honest and do a good job, many have thrown caution and science to the wind and are making all sorts of crazy claims. For example, we have chiropractic offices that are advertising heavily, claiming that they can regrow brand-new knees from joints with severe arthritis. Most of them are injecting dead amniotic or cord blood tissue and claiming that this is a live “stem cell” treatment. Is this reality? Nope. It’s high-pressure sales.

If you have “bone on bone” arthritis or a degenerated and collapsed low-back disc, there is no stem cell treatment available that will regrow you a new joint or disc. If this doesn’t happen, how do these procedures work in those type of patients? They likely work by changing the cellular and inflammatory chemicals within the joint, converting it from a cartilage breakdown to a maintenance environment. So what can be seen on MRI?

Real Changes in Cartilage

In the video above you’ll see many different MRIs, mostly of knees and one ankle. What’s being shown is that joints with small holes in the cartilage can regenerate using the right stem cell technology applied in the right way. Or better stated, we have MRI evidence that seems to show regeneration and these patients improved consistent with that outcome. Was the cartilage or fibrocartilage growth? Given that we can’t biopsy these sites in real humans, there is no way to tell. Looking at studies in animals, it’s likely somewhere in between the two.

Real Changes in Low-Back Discs

What is real here? If you meet a doctor who claims that he or she can regrow a severely degenerated and collapsed disc, run the other direction. This is not possible in 2017. However, what is real?

As you can see in the video, if you have a tear in a low-back disc causing pain or a bulging or herniated disc, we can see very significant changes in low-back disc MRIs after the procedure that can correlate with great results. However, your doctor needs to know how to perform fluoroscopy-guided procedures and needs to place the right type of cells in the right spot. As an example, for the MRI changes shown, we used everything from a same-day bone marrow stem cell procedure to a specially cultured stem cell injection to an advanced platelet lysate injected via epidural.

Real Changes in Torn Knee ACLs

What can be done with torn ACL ligaments? The first thing to understand is that only about 70% of all ACL tear patients who are offered surgery are stem cell injection candidates. Deciding who is a candidate and who is likely to fail is an analysis only performed by Regenexx physicians. Why? We invented this stem cell procedure and only our network of physicians has a tool that can provide candidacy information. The other thing to comprehend is that these procedures must be done under fluoroscopy to precisely inject the origin and insertion of both bundles of the ligament. Only about 100 US physicians at this point can accurately perform this procedure, so buyer beware. As one example, ultrasound-guided injections for an ACL injury are likely not going to get enough cells to the right spot.

In the video, you’ll see a few before and after ACL images. The brighter- and bigger-looking ligaments (usually outlined by the triangles) are torn, either with or without sections that have white through the ligament (a complete and retracted tear). The after images have denser and darker ligaments that are more normal appearing. These patients also all functionally recovered without issues without having any surgery.

Real Changes in Shoulder Rotator Cuff Tears

How about rotator cuff tears? What’s possible? Again, only about 70% of all tears can be treated with only a stem cell injection. Basically, this means tears that are 1 cm separated or less. For this procedure (different from the ACL injection above), you need to have stem cells precisely injected into the tear area using ultrasound guidance. In addition, while more providers can pull this off, we’re now talking about only a few hundred providers in the U.S. who are highly competent in this procedure.

So what do the images show? Notice that there are brighter gaps in some of these supraspinatus tendons that heal. Sometimes these are bigger and sometimes smaller, but in all of them, there is evidence of healing without surgery.

Real Changes in Bone Diseases

These are a smattering of cases from AVN/ON (a disease where bone dies off), fracture nonunion (where a fractured bone doesn’t heal), and spondylolysis (a crack in the spine). Again, to treat these diseases, direct injection in the bone needs to occur and the needle must be placed precisely into the area of the issue once the MRI has been mapped to X-ray. There is no way to just give the patient an IV infusion or inject in the joint and have this work.

The MRIs show that changes in the MRI and CT scan that indicate dead, dying, nonhealing, or cracked bone show that these areas have healed after a precise stem cell injection. Remarkably, all of these patients were surgical candidates and one was so far gone (the shoulder patient) that surgeons didn’t think there was a benefit in trying surgery.

The upshot? We have many more images, but this smattering of films is a testament to how we have worked hard to document what we do. Again, be careful out there, as only a handful of providers have the skill to pull these results off.



    *DISCLAIMER: Like all medical procedures, Regenexx® Procedures have a success and failure rate. Patient reviews and testimonials on this site should not be interpreted as a statement on the effectiveness of our treatments for anyone else.
    Providers listed on the Regenexx website are for informational purposes only and are not a recommendation from Regenexx for a specific provider or a guarantee of the outcome of any treatment you receive.


    Michael Sprague says

    So Honestly --Can you do anything for Bone on Bone ?

    It sounds then like if your knee is really worn then there is no Hope


    Chris Centeno says

    We treat bone on bone knee arthritis regularly. The misunderstanding is that the pain and dysfunction of knee arthritis is structural. Please see: and and and and


    Deby Pierce says

    Would this help spinal stenosis?


    Chris Centeno says

    Please see:


    David Metzer says

    Does this work for the meniscus? What about a video showing before and after treatment for meniscus tears?


    Chris Centeno says

    Yes, we have seen evidence of meniscus healing.


    Angela says

    Can this be done on a 87 year old woman? Is there an age restriction? Knees are hone to bone with arthritis


    Chris Centeno says

    Our research has shown that age is not a factor in the outcome of our knee procedures. If you'd like to see if you'd be a candidate, please submit the Am I a Candidate form to the right of the Blog. Please see: and


    Nicholas says

    Have you ever used stem cells to treat a schmorls node?


    Chris Centeno says



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    About the Author

    Chris Centeno

    Christopher J. Centeno, M.D. is an international expert and specialist in regenerative medicine and the clinical use of mesenchymal stem cells in orthopedics. He is board certified in physical medicine as well as rehabilitation and in pain management through The American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.…

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