Do stem cells have a brain? Meaning, can they “remember” and use that memory to act? That’s the intriguing concept that’s being explored in new research and the results sort of blow me away. Let me explain.
Since the experimental model that’s used in this morning’s research is on stem cells’ and their ability to remember sinus inflammation, it’s important to understand the difference between acute and chronic sinusitis. Spring and fall are popular times for acute sinus flare-ups as pollen counts are higher than at other times of the year. If you only have these occasional bouts of seasonal allergies, you likely only have acute sinusitis. However, we’re currently closing in on winter, and in most areas seasonal allergy attacks should be behind us. If, however, you’re still suffering with swollen sinuses, a runny nose, sneezing, and so on, you may have chronic sinusitis.
So what keeps some of us in this never-ending loop of chronic sinus misery? One study suggests it may be because our stem cells don’t forget those previous battles with sinusitis and, in fact, store the memories in our genes, which keeps our immune system constantly in attack mode. Let’s dive in.
The new study focused on investigating genes that were active in the cells of patients who suffered from chronic sinusitis and comparing these to the cells of those without the condition. Around 60,000 nasal cavity cells were collected and cultured for over a month. The results? In those with chronic sinusitis, many of the active genes in the stem cells collected were those that are linked to allergic inflammation and that are targeted by the immune system, specifically the molecules interleukin 4 and interleukin 13.
So what causes the sinusitis to become chronic after the acute threat (seasonal allergies, dust, etc.) has passed? In the case of sinusitis, unfortunately, the fact that the stem cells retain memories of the initial inflammation and likely strengthen their responses due to these memories may keep them constantly signaling an invasion alert to the immune system even though the actual invasion (e.g., dust, dander, pollen) has long since passed. In addition, they may pass the active inflammatory genes through the next generation of stem cells, keeping the immune system constantly in attack mode and the cycle of sinusitis continuous, or chronic.
While this allergy study found that stem cells may store memories of their responses to allergens, causing them to become stuck in a cycle of constant signaling to the immune system and leading to chronic sinusitis in the process, the reverse can happen in other conditions. According to another study, retaining memories of healing past skin wounds, for example, may help skin stem cells be better prepared to address subsequent skin wounds in the future.
So whether our stem cells respond in a positive or a negative way to their memories of old injuries and conditions, just discovering that they don’t forget is likely to lead to more advanced interventions in the future. For example, those immune molecules, IL-4 and IL-13, that target certain genes in the stem cells of those with chronic sinus inflammation—researchers were able to block these using an antibody. So can we improve stem cell therapies by making sure we wipe or tailor their memories?
It seems we are constantly learning more and more fascinating things about our stem cells. We know they are the body’s repairmen, but what else do we know about them. Let’s review a few recent findings:
The upshot? Who would have thought that stem cells have memories? I guess at some level it makes sense, as all cells need to learn what could happen to get better at their response. This likely evolved as the basic building blocks of how we as humans can survive in such disparate and harsh environments. In addition, using this memory to our advantage may one day help us really dial in these therapies!
*DISCLAIMER: Like all medical procedures, Regenexx® Procedures have a success and failure rate. Patient reviews and testimonials on this site should not be interpreted as a statement on the effectiveness of our treatments for anyone else.
Providers listed on the Regenexx website are for informational purposes only and are not a recommendation from Regenexx for a specific provider or a guarantee of the outcome of any treatment you receive.
About the Author
Christopher J. Centeno, M.D. is an international expert and specialist in regenerative medicine and the clinical use of mesenchymal stem cells in orthopedics. He is board certified in physical medicine as well as rehabilitation and in pain management through The American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.…